Laws, Regulations & Annotations

Business Taxes Law Guide – Revision 2014
 

Sales And Use Tax Regulations

Article 12. Matters Involving Transportation of Property

Sales And Use Tax Regulations

Article 12. Matters Involving Transportation of Property

Regulation 1628. Transportation Charges.

Reference: Sections 6010.5, 6011, 6012, and Revenue and Taxation Code.

(a) TRANSPORTATION BY CARRIER. Except as provided in paragraph (c) below, in the case of a sale, whether by lease or otherwise, tax does not apply to "separately stated" charges for transportation of property from the retailer's place of business or other point from which shipment is made "directly to the purchaser," provided the transportation is by other than facilities of the retailer, i.e., by United States mail, independent contract or common carrier. The place where the sale occurs, i.e., title passes to the customer or the lease begins, is immaterial, except when the property is sold for a delivered price or the transportation is by facilities of the retailer, as explained in (b) below. The amount of transportation charges excluded from the measure of tax shall not exceed the cost of the transportation to the retailer.

Transportation charges will be regarded as "separately stated" only if they are separately set forth in the contract for sale or in a document reflecting that contract, issued contemporaneously with the sale, such as the retailer's invoice. The fact that the transportation charges can be computed from the information contained on the face of the invoice or other document will not suffice as a separate statement. If a separately stated charge is made designated "postage and handling" or "shipping and handling", only that portion of the charge which represents actual postage or actual shipment may be excluded from the measure of tax. Such amounts may be excluded from the measure of tax even though such amounts are not affixed to, or noted on, the package. A separately stated charge designated "handling" or "handling charge" is not a separate statement of transportation charges. Tax applies to such charges, notwithstanding the fact that postage or shipment charges may or may not be affixed to or noted on the package.

Property will not be considered delivered "directly to the purchaser" if it is shipped to the retailer, to the retailer's agent or representative, or to anyone else acting in the retailer's behalf. Any separately stated charges by the retailer for the transportation of property to, rather than from, the retailer's place of business, or to another point from which the property will then be "delivered directly to the purchaser," are included in the measure of tax. Such charges represent incoming freight and are taxable as part of the cost of the property sold by the retailer.

(b) TRANSPORTATION BY RETAILER'S FACILITIES OR PROPERTY SOLD FOR DELIVERED PRICE.

(1) DEFINITION. "Delivered Price." Property is sold for a delivered price when the price agreed upon in the contract for sale includes whatever cost or charge may be made for transportation of the property directly to the purchaser. A sale for a "guaranteed price" including a separately stated amount for transportation is a sale for a "delivered price." Property is not sold for a delivered price when the price is agreed upon and to this price is added a separately stated amount representing the cost or charge for transportation of the property directly to the purchaser and any increase or decrease in the actual cost of transportation is borne by or credited to the purchaser.

(2) IN GENERAL. Except as provided in paragraph (c) below, when transportation is by facilities of the retailer or the property is sold for a delivered price, tax applies to charges for transportation to the purchaser, unless (A) the transportation charges are separately stated, (B) are for transportation from the retailer's place of business or other point from which shipment is made directly to the purchaser, and (C) the transportation occurs after the sale of the property is made to the purchaser. When the sale occurs before the transportation to the purchaser commences, the tax does not apply to separately stated charges for the transportation. The amount that may be excluded from the measure of the tax cannot exceed a reasonable charge for transportation by facilities of the retailer or the cost of transportation by other than facilities of the retailer.

(3) DETERMINATION OF WHEN SALE OCCURS.

(A) Security Agreements. When a sale is made pursuant to a security agreement in which the retailer retains the title as security for the payment of the price, the sale occurs when possession of the property is transferred by the retailer to the purchaser or other person at the purchaser's direction.

(B) Leases. When the sale is by lease, the sale occurs upon the transfer of possession or granting of the right of possession of the property by the lessor to the lessee or other person at his direction.

(C) Sale on Approval. When the sale is on approval, the sale does not occur until the purchaser accepts the property.

(D) Other Sales. Unless explicitly agreed that title is to pass at a prior time, the sale occurs at the time and place at which the retailer completes his performance with reference to the physical delivery of the property, even though a document of title is to be delivered at a different time or place. If the contract requires or authorizes the retailer to send the property to the purchaser but does not require him to deliver it at destination, the retailer completes his performance with reference to the physical delivery of the property at the time and place of shipment, e.g., delivery of the property to a carrier for delivery by the carrier to the purchaser; but if the contract expressly requires delivery at destination, including cases where one of the terms of the contract is F.O.B. place of destination, the retailer completes his performance with reference to the physical delivery of the property on tender to the purchaser there. When delivery of the property is by facilities of the retailer, title passes when the property is delivered to the purchaser at the destination unless there is an explicit written agreement executed prior to the delivery that title is to pass at some other time.

(4) PLACE OF SALE. For the purposes of the State Sales and Use Tax Law (but not for the purposes of the Bradley-Burns Uniform Local Sales and Use Tax Law nor for the purposes of the Transactions and Use Tax Law) the place of the sale or purchase of tangible personal property is the place where the property is physically located at the time the act constituting the sale or purchase takes place.

(c) TRANSPORTATION OF LANDFILL MATERIAL. Operative January 1, 1989, tax does not apply to separately stated charges for transportation of landfill material, e.g., sand, dirt or gravel, removed from the ground and transported from the excavation site to a landfill site specified by the purchaser if:

(1) the amount of transportation charges excluded from the measure of tax does not exceed a reasonable charge for transportation by facilities of the retailer or the cost of the transportation by other than facilities of the retailer, or

(2) the consideration received is solely for the purpose of transporting the material to a specified site and the material is transferred without charge. If such transportation charges are in excess of a reasonable charge for transportation by facilities of the retailer or in excess of the cost of the transportation by other than facilities of the retailer, the provisions of this paragraph will not apply.

For purposes of this paragraph, it is immaterial when title passes to the purchaser of the landfill material.

APPENDIX

(a) EXAMPLES OF CONTRACT FOR DELIVERED PRICE.

(1) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit delivered to the purchaser.

(2) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit "which includes cost of delivery at $10 per unit."

(3) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit delivered, freight prepaid.

(4) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit freight collect and allowed.

(5) The contract for sale calls for the sale of property for a guaranteed price of $100 consisting of $90 plus $10 freight.

(b) EXAMPLES OF CONTRACTS WHICH ARE NOT FOR A DELIVERED PRICE.

(1) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit freight collect.

(2) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit actual freight prepaid and added to the sales price.

(c) EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION OF TAX. All deliveries are by independent carrier.

All billings are in accordance with the terms of the contract.

(1) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit delivered to the purchaser with freight prepaid.

Tax applies to sales price of $100 per unit with no deduction for freight charge since the freight charges are not separately stated. The contract is for a delivered price and requires delivery to the purchaser. Title does not pass to the purchaser prior to delivery.

(2) Contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit. The retailer is required to ship the property to the purchaser freight collect.

Tax applies to $100 per unit since the responsibility for the payment of the freight is upon the purchaser, and the seller makes no charge for freight. Since the carrier will bill the purchaser for the actual freight charge, there will be a separate statement of the freight. The property is not sold for a delivered price.

(3) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit freight collect and allowed.

The measure of tax is $100 per unit less the amount of the freight paid to the carrier and shown on the payment voucher sent to the retailer by the purchaser.

The sale is for a delivered price. Separately stated transportation charges are excludable from the measure of tax since the transportation occurred after the sale of the property. If the contract for sale explicitly provided for passage of title upon delivery to the destination, then the measure of tax would be $100 per unit since the sale was for a delivered price and title did not pass prior to transportation.

(4) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit plus actual freight of $10 per unit. Any increase or decrease in the freight is for the account of the buyer.

Tax applies to $100 per unit since the contract is not for a delivered price and shipment is by independent carrier.

(5) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 plus freight of $10, and the seller guarantees the price will not exceed $110.

Tax applies to $100 because the sale is for a delivered price and there is no showing that title was to pass upon delivery at the destination. A contract will be construed as a shipment contract unless it expressly requires delivery at destination point. If the contract for sale explicitly provided for passage of title upon delivery to the destination, then the measure of tax would be $110 since the sale was for a delivered price and title did not pass prior to transportation.

(6) The contract for sale provides for the sale of property for $100 per unit freight equalized with x city. The invoice shows 10 units at $100 per unit, $1,000, freight from x city $100, total $1,100.

Under these circumstances, tax applies to $1,000 since the only separate statement of freight is the freight equalized with x city in the amount of $100. If the actual freight paid to the carrier for the transportation of the property from the retailer's place of business or other point from which shipment is made directly to the purchaser is less than $100, the exclusion will be limited to the amount paid to the carrier.

(7) Assuming the same facts as above, except the invoice shows 10 units at $100 per unit, $1,000, freight equalized with x city $100, total $1,100. The invoice also shows the notation, "Actual freight prepaid from point of shipment to destination is $200."

The sale is not for a delivered price. On the basis of the above billing, a separate statement of freight is made in the amount of $200. Accordingly, the measure of tax is $1,100 minus $200, or $900.

History: Adopted June 20, 1962, effective July 3, 1962.

Amended August 8, 1962.

Amended September 2, 1965.

Amended by renumbering November 3, 1971, effective December 3, 1971.

Amended November 11, 1971, effective December 16, 1971.

Amended October 11, 1984, effective December 13, 1984. In (a) deleted former second sentence and added last paragraph. Completely revised (b)(3)(D) and examples (c)(3) and (c)(5).

Amended April 5, 1989, effective June 21, 1989. Amended to provide that a charge for the transportation of landfill from an excavation site to a site specified by the purchaser of the landfill is exempt from the tax if the charge is separately stated and does not exceed a reasonable charge or if the entire consideration consists of payment for transportation.

Amended February 8, 1995, effective July 19, 1995. Amended subdivision (a) to reflect that where a separately stated charge is designated "postage and handling" or "shipping and handling," the exact amount of postage or shipping charges need not be affixed to the package but that such a charge marked "handling" is not a separate statement of transportation charges. Amended subdivisions (b)(2) & (3) to correct cross references in the California Code of Regulations.


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Regulation 1629. Goods Damaged in Transit.

Reference: Sections 6006 and 6010, Revenue and Taxation Code.

(a) SALES TAX. If damage to goods in transit to the consumer occurs after the "sale" as defined in Section 6006 of the Revenue and Taxation Code is made, sales tax applies to the sale. If the damage occurs prior thereto, sales tax applies as follows:

(1) If the goods are destroyed, tax does not apply to damages paid the retailer for their destruction.

(2) If the goods are not destroyed, and are sold at retail in their damaged condition, tax applies to that portion of the total amount paid to the retailer representing the fair retail value of the goods in their damaged condition.

(b) USE TAX. Use tax does not apply with respect to goods destroyed before the purchaser makes any storage or use of the goods. If the goods are damaged but are nevertheless stored or used by the purchaser, tax applies to that portion of the total amount paid to the retailer representing the fair retail value of the goods in their damaged condition.

History: Effective as to Sales Tax August 1, 1933.

Effective as to Use Tax July 1, 1935.

Adopted as of January 1, 1945, as a restatement of previous rulings.

Amended by renumbering August 5, 1969, effective September 6, 1969.


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Regulation 1630. Packers, Loaders, and Shippers.

Reference: Sections 6007, 6359.7, 6359.8, and 6364, Revenue and Taxation Code.

(a) IN GENERAL DEFINITIONS. Packers, loaders, and shippers (hereinafter collectively called "shippers") purchase tangible personal property to be used in conditioning the goods to be shipped and to preserve, protect, and contain the goods during transportation. Such property includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) PROPERTY USED TO CONDITION THE GOODS FOR SHIPMENT OR TO PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE GOODS DURING SHIPMENT.

bracing materials

car strips

cleaning compounds

degreasing compounds

derusting compounds

dunnage or "loose" lumber (except as otherwise specified in (2) below)

gas (including dispensers)

ice and dry ice

miscellaneous preservatives

rust preventing compounds

salt

solvents

tarpaulin (weather protection)


(2) PROPERTY USED AS CONTAINERS OR AS PARTS OF CONTAINERS OF THE GOODS SHIPPED.

bags

barrels

bottles

boxes

cans

carboys

cartons

crates

cylinders

drums

excelsior and other packing and crating material

gummed tape

kegs

lumber (including "loose" lumber used in the same manner and for the same purpose as pallets)

pallets

sacks

strapping

twine

wrapping paper


(3) PROPERTY THAT WHEN PHYSICALLY INCORPORATED IN THE FINAL PRODUCT BEING SOLD IS A SALE FOR RESALE.

wax and fungicide

post harvest protective shields

protective coatings

salts, acids & caustics


(b) APPLICATION OF TAX.

(1) PROPERTY USED TO CONDITION, PRESERVE OR PROTECT GOODS DURING SHIPMENT.

(A) General. Tax applies to sales to shippers of property used in conditioning the goods to be shipped, or to preserve and protect the goods during transportation. It is immaterial whether or not a separate charge or separate billing is made by the shipper for the particular item, that it may not be returned to or reused by the shipper, that the goods are shipped in interstate or foreign commerce, or that the shipper's contract is with the United States. The property is purchased by the shipper for a purpose other than resale, i.e., conditioning the goods, or preserving and protecting the goods during shipment. Thus, the sale to the shipper is a retail sale, even though he or she may not retain title to the property used by him or her.

(B) Ice, Carbon Dioxide and Preservatives.

1. Ice. The sale or use of ice or dry ice used in packing and shipping or transporting food products for human consumption is exempt from tax when the food products are shipped or transported in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce by common carriers, contract carriers, or proprietary carriers.

2. Carbon Dioxide. Operative January 1, 1995, the sale or use of carbon dioxide used in packing and shipping or transporting fruits or vegetables for human consumption is exempt from tax when the fruits or vegetables are shipped or transported in intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce by common carriers, contract carriers, or proprietary carriers provided the fruits or vegetables are not sold to the ultimate consumer in the package that contains the carbon dioxide.

3. Preservatives. Tax does not apply to the sale or purchase of preservative products under the following two circumstances:

a. The preservative product is included in the shipping container of exempt food products when they serve a beneficial purpose in preserving the food products during shipment or storage. These include moisture-absorbing desiccants, gas-absorbing ethylene sachets, and gas emitting sulfur dioxide pads or similar products.

b. The preservative product serves a beneficial purpose in preserving the food product and remains in the packaged food product until opened by the ultimate consumer. This includes nitrogen gas used to maintain an inert atmosphere in packaged food products which remains in the packaged food as a preservative until opened by the consumer; and moisture absorbing desiccants included in individual packages of beef jerky which remain sealed until opened by the consumer.

(2) PROPERTY USED AS CONTAINERS OR PARTS OF CONTAINERS OF GOODS SHIPPED.

(A) General. Tax applies to the sale or use of containers or container materials under the provisions of regulation 1589, "Containers and Labels", (18 CCR 1589). However, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(C), when the shipper is not the seller of the contents, the sale of the containers or container materials or parts to the shipper is a taxable retail sale unless the shipper expressly contracts with his or her customer for the sale to his or her customer of the container or container material, making a separate charge therefor, with title passing from the shipper to his or her customer before any use of the material is made, and without any understanding or trade custom that the property will be returned to the shipper for reuse. When all of these conditions exist, the shipper may purchase the property for resale by giving a resale certificate to the supplier of the property. The sale of the property by the shipper is taxable unless exempt as a sale to the United States, as a sale in interstate or foreign commerce, or exempt for any other reason.

(B) Carbon Dioxide. Operative January 1, 1995, the sale or use of nonreturnable container materials containing carbon dioxide atmosphere is exempt from the tax when used in packing and shipping or transporting fruits or vegetables in intrastate, interstate, or foreign commerce by common carriers, contract carriers, or proprietary carriers, whether or not the shipper is the seller of the fruits or vegetables.

(C) Packing Food Products for Human Consumption. Operative April 1, 2000, the sale of, and the storage, use, or other consumption of, all containers is exempt from tax when sold or leased without the contents to persons who place food products for human consumption in the containers for shipment, provided the food products will be sold. The exemption applies without regard to whether the food products are sold in the same container or not, or whether the food products are remanufactured or repackaged prior to their sale.

(3) DISPOSABLE TEMPERATURE RECORDING DEVICES. The sale or storage, use or other consumption of a disposable temperature recording device in this state is subject to tax unless an exemption or exclusion from taxation applies. When a shipper of perishable food products purchases for resale a disposable temperature recording device for the sole purpose of shipping the device along with the products it ships, the shipper of the perishable food products does not make a taxable use of the disposable temperature recording device merely by starting the recording device in this state. If, pursuant to a perishable food product shipper's contract with its customer, the shipper provides a recording device along with perishable food products to an out-of-state point, the shipper's sale of the device constitutes an exempt sale in interstate commerce pursuant to Revenue and Taxation Code section 6396. The provisions of this paragraph do not, however, apply to the sale or lease of non-disposable temperature recording devices.

History: Effective May 24, 1945.

Amended June 29, 1945.

Amended and renumbered July 8, 1971, effective August 19, 1971.

Amended January 9, 1980, effective February 29, 1980. In (b)(1)(B) substituted "Until July 1, 1980, tax" for "Tax"; added second sentence; substituted "in every instance" for "however" in third (former second) sentence.

Amended May 6, 1986, effective July 9, 1986. In subdivision (b)(1)(B), amended regulation to provide that sale or use of ice or dry ice used in packing and shipping or transporting food products for human consumption is exempt from tax as specified.

Amended December 13, 1995, effective January 12, 1996. Amended paragraph (b)(1)(B) to incorporate provisions of SB 1774 (Stats. 1994, Ch. 624) which exempted the sale and use of carbon dioxide under certain named conditions.

Amended August 21, 1996, effective November 22, 1996. Added subdivision (b)(2)(C); amended subdivision (b)(2)(A) to provide that transactions qualifying under new subdivision (b)(2)(C) are excluded from its provisions.

Amended July 29, 1999, effective October 27, 1999. Subdivision (a) new subdivision (3) added. Subdivision (b)(1)(B) deleted the word "and" in the title "Ice and Carbon Dioxide", also added the words "and Preservatives." New subdivision (b)(1)(B)(3) added.

Amended June 25, 2003, effective October 15, 2003. Subdivision (b)(3) added.

Amended October 19, 2004, effective January 11, 2005. Subdivision (b)(2)(C)—current language replaced with "Operative . . . sale."


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Regulation 1632. C.O.D. FEES.

Reference: Sections 6011 and 6012, Revenue and Taxation Code.

On and after July 1, 1970, tax applies to any C.O.D. fee paid by the retailer's customer on taxable C.O.D. sales except where the C.O.D. fee is not included in the invoice and the carrier collects it from the retailer's customer and retains it.

History: Adopted March 24, 1970, effective April 29, 1970.

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